Reference Data

Embodied Carbon Emissions

Data DescriptionReference SourcesComments

Structural Quantities

Price & Myers; DeQo; EHDD; RASMI; others → Request info

Structural quantities by building type by structural system

Structural Material Carbon Intensities

Assume concrete density 2400 kg/m3 and timber density at 450 kg/m3

PV Panel Lifecycle Emissions

Includes panel only (racks and cabling excluded)

Cladding Carbon Intensities

Cladding, roofing, and glazing units.

Interior Fit-Out Carbon Intensities

Data best describes commercial office fitouts

MEP System Carbon Intensities

Data-scarce category

Hardscape Carbon Intensities

Carbon Conscience; OpenEPD; EHDD Internal Data → Request info

Based on standard hardscape details

End-of-Life Emissions


In year 60

Operational Carbon Emissions

Data DescriptionReference SourcesComments

Carbon intensity of electricity, 2023-2050

Includes AER and LRMER metrics across three grid scenarios: Midcase, High Cost Renewable Energy, 95% decarbonization by 2045

Carbon intensity of electricity, 2051-2110

Extrapolation algorithm by EHDD

Extrapolate 2050 Cambium estimate using average annual decrease across 2023-2050 for each state.

Refrigerant charge

Quantities from Rodriguez 2019

Total refrigerant charge across all of a building's HVAC+R systems

Energy Use Intensity Benchmark Value

Zero Tool (North America); summary of EPC databases (EU and UK)


% of EUI from onsite combustion


Solar Resource

NREL Physical Solar Model

Energy Production from PV Array

NREL PVWatts v8

Hourly load profiles

coming soon

Carbon Storage and Sequestration

Data DescriptionReference SourcesComments

Landscape Carbon Sequestration

Landscaping Maintenance Emissions

Biogenic carbon sequestration

ACLCA, 2019. ACLCA Guidance to Calculating Non-LCIA Inventory Metrics in Accordance with ISO 21930:2017. ACLCA.

For timber structural elements.

Soil organic carbon

Used in calculation of emissions from greenfield development.

*Full citation for Payette’s Kaleidoscope: Payette’s Kaleidoscope Embodied Carbon Design Tool, data from Tally by Building Transparency and KT Innovations, thinkstep, and Autodesk using industry representative LCI data unless otherwise noted. Accessed in November 2023.

Reference Data via API

The regionally-specific carbon Intensity data used in C.Scale is exposed via out API at the /api/carbon-intensities endpoint. This is useful for populating tooltips and helper texts when C.Scale is integrated in your application.

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