Reference Data

Embodied Carbon Emissions

Data DescriptionCommentsReference Sources

Structural Quantities

Structural quantities by building type by structural system

Price & Myers; DeQo; EHDD; others → Request info

Structural Material Carbon Intensities

Assume concrete density 2400 kg/m3 and timber density at 450 kg/m3

PV Panel Lifecycle Emissions

Includes panel only (racks and cabling excluded)

Cladding Carbon Intensities

Cladding, roofing, and glazing units.

Interior Fit-Out Carbon Intensities

Data best describes commercial office fitouts

MEP System Carbon Intensities

Data-scarce category

Hardscape Carbon Intensities

Based on standard hardscape details

Carbon Conscience; OpenEPD; EHDD Internal Data → Request info

End-of-Life Emissions

In year 60


Operational Carbon Emissions

Data DescriptionCommentsCitation

Carbon intensity of electricity, 2023-2050

Includes AER and LRMER metrics across three grid scenarios: Midcase, High Cost Renewable Energy, 95% decarbonization by 2045

Carbon intensity of electricity, 2051-2110

Extrapolate 2050 Cambium estimate using average annual decrease across 2023-2050 for each state.

Extrapolation algorithm by EHDD

Refrigerant charge

Total refrigerant charge across all of a building's HVAC+R systems

Quantities from Rodriguez 2019

Energy Use Intensity Benchmark Value


Zero Tool (North America); summary of EPC databases (EU and UK)

% of EUI from onsite combustion


Solar Resource

NREL Physical Solar Model

Energy Production from PV Array

NREL PVWatts v8

Hourly load profiles

coming soon

Carbon Storage and Sequestration

Data DescriptionCommentsCitation

Landscape Carbon Sequestration

Landscaping Maintenance Emissions

Biogenic carbon sequestration

For timber structural elements.

ACLCA, 2019. ACLCA Guidance to Calculating Non-LCIA Inventory Metrics in Accordance with ISO 21930:2017. ACLCA.

Soil organic carbon

Used in calculation of emissions from greenfield development.

*Full citation for Payette’s Kaleidoscope: Payette’s Kaleidoscope Embodied Carbon Design Tool, data from Tally by Building Transparency and KT Innovations, thinkstep, and Autodesk using industry representative LCI data unless otherwise noted. Accessed in November 2023.

Reference Data via API

The regionally-specific carbon Intensity data used in C.Scale is exposed via out API at the /api/carbon-intensities endpoint. This is useful for populating tooltips and helper texts when C.Scale is integrated in your application.

Last updated

C.Scale © 2023-2024 EHDD. All rights reserved.